1. Composition of new materials
Materials are familiar to all of us. For example, sweater is made of wool and porcelain bowl is made of inorganic nonmetallic materials. There are materials in all aspects of our life. So what is material and what is made of it.
Normally speaking, material refers to the material with certain chemical composition and molecular structure, and can provide certain physical and chemical properties, so that it can be used to manufacture various products and tools. This definition is very extensive. It covers almost all aspects of human life and work, as well as all modern high-tech fields and all modern industrial systems. Therefore, material is the basis of human material civilization, and also the basis and guide of modern high-tech.
What is new material? New materials refer to the new materials with excellent performance and special functions, as well as those with improved traditional material composition and process.
2. Industrial characteristics of new materials
(1) New materials: the importance of independent R & D and innovation
All over the world, the innovation and research and development of new materials have been highly valued, and new materials development plans have been formulated one after another. On the basis of comprehensive development and research, corresponding policies have been issued at different levels of market and industrial environment, so as to enhance the research and development and industrial level of new materials.
(2) New materials: the rapid development of high-tech industry accelerates the renewal of new materials
Material industry is the basic industry of national economy. New material is the forerunner of material industry development and one of the important strategic emerging industries. Productivity is the fundamental driving force of social development. The breakthrough of high and new technology has accelerated the transformation of technology to productivity, and put forward new challenges and demands for key basic materials. For example, the development of compound semiconductor materials such as gallium nitride (GAN) has given birth to semiconductor lighting technology; the improvement of conversion efficiency of solar cells has greatly promoted the development of new energy industry.
(3) Multinational groups dominate and state-owned enterprises strive to catch up
As one of China's strategic emerging industries and one of the ten key development areas of "made in China 2025", new material industry is the basis for China to realize the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure and upgrade the equipment manufacturing industry. In order to make our country become a world manufacturing power as soon as possible, China should increase the policy support for the new material industry, introduce foreign capital and recruit talents, so as to expand the new material market in China. Some well-known multinational companies continue to improve the investment layout of new materials industry in China by increasing the scale of investment, diversifying the forms and contents of investment, so as to drive the development of China's new material industry. At the same time, in order to solve the information technology monopoly of multinational companies, China's relevant parties are also trying to improve the innovation ability to overcome the "key core technology".
At present, the world-famous enterprise groups continue to expand to the field of new materials by virtue of their advantages in technology research and development, capital and talents, and occupy a leading position in high value-added new material products. For example, more than 70% of the semiconductor silicon market share is occupied by Japan's sinyue, Japan Shenggao and Germany's Shichuang; Philips controlled American lumen power type white LED takes the lead in the world; enterprises in the United States, Japan, Germany and other countries have 70% core patents for LED epitaxial growth and chip preparation.
(4) Green industry of new materials has become an important trend of development
Green economy is a new economic form which is market-oriented, based on traditional industrial economy and aimed at the harmony between economy and environment. It is also a development state of industrial economy to meet the needs of human environmental protection and health. Nowadays, with the increasingly exhausted resources, deteriorating ecological environment and greatly increased per capita demand, the concept of green development and sustainable development has become the consensus of mankind. How to develop green economy has become the most critical issue.
Taking the new material industry as the guidance, strengthening the development of "green economy + new material industry" is the goal of all countries at present. Tu hailing, an academician of the Chinese Academy of engineering, once said that the rise of the green new material industry has caused major changes in many industries, such as electric power, construction, automobile and communication. Green and low-carbon new material technology and industrialization will become the main direction of development in the future. In the future, we will pay more attention to social goals such as resource conservation, environmental protection and public health while pursuing economic goals.
(5) Reform and innovation of new material R & D mode
In the past, the research and development mode of materials mainly relied on scientific intuition and traditional material research methods of trial and error. However, this mode has low efficiency, high cost and obvious disadvantages. It can no longer meet the needs of rapid industrial development, but has become a bottleneck restricting technological development and industrial progress. In recent years, with the development of big data, artificial intelligence and other technologies, a large number of achievements have emerged in the use of new technology for material design, among which the most praised is the new material research and development mode driven by material gene big data.
With the advent of the era of big data, the accumulation of massive data processing technology and the gradual maturity of artificial intelligence algorithm, data-driven innovative research methods have become the fourth research paradigm after experiment, theory and simulation, which is also becoming the inevitable choice of new material research and development.
2. Pattern change and future development trend of global new material industry
1. The development of new materials
The development of new materials is closely related to the development of human civilization. Stone civilization, bronze civilization and iron civilization witness the long process of human discovery, mastery and use of materials. Since the first industrial revolution in the 1860s, human civilization has gone through the era of striving for glory, the era of electricity, and today's information age. On the surface, the three industrial revolutions seem to have no direct relationship with new materials. But just imagine, without the rise of iron and Steel Technology in the first industrial revolution, steam engine in the second industrial revolution, and petrochemical industry in the third industrial revolution, how could there be changes in the information and communication industries, how could there be the gallop of airplanes, automobiles and cruise ships, not to mention the virtual world of interconnection, not to mention the big data and artificial intelligence industries, which will support today's achievements. The renewal and iteration of human technology also occurs along with people's basic necessities of life.
The first industrial revolution took place in Britain in the 1860s. In the first industrial revolution dominated by Britain, the iron and steel industry was undoubtedly the material basis for the leap of productivity. With the wide application of such revolutionary technologies as crucible steelmaking process and watt steam engine, the British steel production is rising and the steel price is falling. Iron is rich and cheap enough to be used in general construction.
The second industrial revolution began in the late 1860s, marked by the breakthrough and application of electric energy and the emergence of internal combustion engines. Germany was the leader of this industrial revolution, while the United States was the master. German chemical industry and chemical materials emerged in the second industrial revolution, which became the basis of German economic curve overtaking and military rapid rise. In the past 100 years, Germany has experienced several ups and downs, but it has been able to complete the Renaissance, which is inseparable from the technological accumulation and precipitation completed in the second industrial revolution.
The third industrial revolution began in 50 years of the 20th century, marked by the invention of computers, the transformation of information technology and communication industry. The United States is the initiator and worthy leader of this revolution. The United States almost leads the world in nuclear technology, biotechnology, jet aviation technology, manned space technology, microelectronics technology and information technology. Nuclear engineering materials, biopolymer materials, superalloys, aerospace materials, semiconductor materials and information materials related to the above fields have become the material basis for the United States to gain global hegemony.
With the rapid development of Internet, mobile Internet and Internet of things, information technology has a profound impact on economic activities and human life style. Semiconductor industry has become the most precise, highest output value and deepest globalization industry on the blue planet, and semiconductor materials have become the important material basis for carrying information society. With the development of the concept of semiconductor super crystal structure and the progress of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and chemical beam epitaxy (CBE), semiconductor physics has developed from "impurity Engineering" in the past to "energy band engineering", which lays a foundation for the application of new generation devices based on quantum effects. Up to now, semiconductor materials have developed to the third generation.
2. Development pattern change of new material industry
In recent years, a new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial reform is ready to take place, and the global competition pattern of new material industry is also undergoing major adjustment. Undoubtedly, this is an opportunity and challenge for the structural adjustment of China's material industry.
The R & D of material technology is facing new breakthroughs. New materials and new material structures are emerging continuously. The global new material technology and industry are developing rapidly. New material technology has become one of the hot spots of competition among countries. In 2016, the market scale of new material industry exceeded $2 trillion, and by 2018 it had reached $2.5 trillion, with an average annual growth rate of more than 10%.
3. Development trend of international new material industry
First, new materials + green economy. The global new material industry tends to be green and low-carbon, and its compatibility with the environment is also increasing, so as to form the trend of green and sustainable development. The ecological environment of materials is an inevitable choice for materials and their industries to meet the economic affordability and achieve sustainable development under the constraints of resources and environmental problems. The performance of eco-environmental materials is excellent and can save resources, reduce pollution and reuse, realize the organic unity and optimal allocation of resources and materials, and achieve the high comprehensive utilization of resources, so as to obtain the maximum resource and environmental benefits.
Second, the regional agglomeration trend of the whole industrial chain layout of new materials is obvious. The new material industry is developing in the direction of diversification, function integration, micro structure, module integration and digital intelligence. In order to improve the comprehensive research and development ability of new materials, many countries have adopted laws and regulations to promote the development of new materials.
However, the regional characteristics of China's new material industry are gradually emerging, and the regional agglomeration trend is obvious, which initially forms the spatial pattern of "eastern coastal agglomeration, central and western characteristic development". The Yangtze River Delta has formed a new material industry cluster including aerospace, new energy, electronic information, new chemical industry and other fields. With high concentration of new materials industry in the Pearl River Delta, a relatively complete industrial chain has been formed, and remarkable achievements have been made in the fields of membrane materials, silicon materials, high-tech ceramics and other new materials.
Third, economic globalization also has a direct impact on the military economy of various countries. Since the 21st century, the role of new materials in supporting major application demonstration projects has become increasingly apparent, providing important technical support for the development of China's energy, resource environment and information fields, and an important guarantee for the construction of major projects and the consolidation of national defense and military industry.
4. Disruptive technology leading to industrial change
Disruptive technology was first proposed by Professor Clayton Christensen of Harvard Business School in the United States. It refers to the technology that has a subversive effect on a certain field or industry. It is often powerful and transformative, and will reconstruct the system and order of the application field.
3. Current situation and existing problems of China's new material industry market.
1. Pay attention to the development experience of China's new material industry since the 12th Five Year Plan
(1) Independent innovation of core technology
The development of China's high-tech promotes the transformation of technology to productivity. At the same time, it puts forward new challenges and demands for key basic materials, which makes the innovation ability of new materials continuously enhanced and the core technology continuously made breakthroughs. For example, in recent years, domestic substitutes have been gradually realized for medium and high-end biomedical materials, which were originally monopolized by imported products. For example, the localization rate of cardiovascular stents has reached more than 80%, and more than 70% of biomedical materials and instruments for bone trauma have been localized.
In order to promote the development of science and technology innovation and industrialization in the field of materials in China, the state has formulated "national innovation driven development strategy outline", "national medium and long term science and technology development plan outline (2006-2020)", "13th five year plan" National Science and technology innovation plan "and" made in China 2025 "and other policy development documents to" escort "the new material industry.
(2) Development around the needs of national major projects
Material industry is the foundation of national economy and plays an important role. Its development provides important technical support and material guarantee for the economic and social development in the fields of energy, resources, environment and information. For example, the establishment of the East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone, the exploitation of oil in the South China Sea, and the construction of large-scale projects such as national defense and security, marine development, aerospace, advanced rail transit, peaceful use of nuclear power and other large-scale projects need high-temperature alloy, high-performance carbon fiber and other core materials.
(3) Adapt to the economic and social development and strengthen the advantages of industrial scale
With the national economic and social development from high-speed to high-quality development, strategic emerging industries are rising rapidly. Key industries such as steel materials for major and high-end equipment, new generation of information technology, biomedicine, new energy and other key industries and their new formats are growing rapidly, and the industrial scale of some fields is in the forefront of the world.
(4) Forming regional development characteristics according to regional advantages
In recent years, in order to improve the development level of the material industry, the relevant departments of the state have carried out resource integration in the original regional space and actively promoted the construction of industrial bases. The regional characteristics of the material industry have gradually emerged, forming three major petrochemical bases in the Yangtze River Delta, pearl River Delta and Bohai Rim region, and industrial parks with international level such as Shanghai, Nanjing, Ningbo, Huizhou and Tianjin, In terms of iron and steel materials, the regional development pattern of northeast, north, East, central and southwest China has been formed. In addition, Bohai rim, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta have formed a relatively complete new material industry system relying on their own industrial advantages, talent advantages and technological advantages.
2. Problems in the development of China's new material industry
Since the reform and opening up, China's new material industry has made great progress, the industrial scale continues to expand, the level of industrial technology continues to improve, and has been in the international leading level in some fields. The layout of industrial agglomeration areas has been accelerated, and the macro development environment has been improved actively, which has laid a solid foundation for the next step of accelerated development. New materials have become one of the four pillars of China's "strong industrial base". At the same time, "made in China 2025" also needs a large number of new materials.
In general, there is still a big gap between China's new material industry and the world's advanced level. In order to "surpass Europe and catch up with the United States", we need to solve the outstanding contradictions and problems in our own development process and solve the bottleneck restricting the rapid development of new material industry. Nowadays, China's new material industry is mainly reflected in the following aspects.
(1) The top-level design and overall coordination are not enough, and there is a phenomenon of low-level repeated construction
According to the new material industry planning issued by various regions in China, the top-level design of new material layout is insufficient, and there is no reasonable positioning and differentiated division of labor based on its own conditions and advantages, and there is a serious convergence phenomenon. In some industries, the products in the upstream of the industrial chain can not be used in the downstream, resulting in overcapacity in the upstream and insufficient effective supply in the downstream market. In addition, blind follow-up investment has not been effectively curbed, which will not only cause repeated construction and overcapacity, but also affect the sustainability of industrial development.
(2) The original innovation ability is insufficient, and the self-sufficiency rate of high-end products is not high
The original innovation ability of new materials in China is insufficient, and there is a lack of in-depth communication and original theoretical research between different disciplines. As the main body of innovation, enterprises have less participation in innovation and R & D, more production tracking and copying, low self-sufficiency rate of key technologies, less invention patents, key components and core components are controlled by others. The key technology of industry commonness is the basis of improving the ability of independent innovation. At present, there are no specialized R & D institutions for generic technology in most industries in China, and the R & D of generic technology is in a state of vacancy; due to the lack of good resource allocation mechanism and sustained and effective investment, it is unable to support independent innovation at the source of technology. In addition, China's new materials have not formed a large number of material brands and systems with independent intellectual property rights; the national and industrial standards of general basic raw materials, unified design specifications and material process quality control specifications are not perfect; there is a lack of new material structure design manufacturing evaluation sharing database in line with industry standards, and the basic support system is absent. Most enterprises are still struggling in the strange circle of "Introduction processing production re introduction reprocessing production", which makes the "made in China" products lack of "made in China" elements, and can only rely on cheap sales and low-level competition to find a way out, which is to a large extent